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Name : Refat Alkurd

Academic Rank: Associate Professor

Administrative Position : Faculty Academic Member

Office 8413       Ext No 8413

Email :

Specialization: Human/Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics

Graduate Of: University of Jordan






    Yarmouk University
    University of Jordan
    University of Jordan

Employment and Experience:

  • Chairperson of the Department of Nutrition, Petra University: from Sep., 2013-present.
  • Associate Professor in Petra University, Amman: from Sep. 13, 2012.
  • Assistant Professor in Petra University, Amman: from the Sep. 1, 2002- Sep. 2012.
  • Assistant Professor in Applied Science University, Amman: 2nd semester 2001- 2002.
  • Clinical Nutritionist: Islamic Hospital, Amman, Jordan, from Dec. 1986 to Nov. 1991.Work included training of new graduated dietitians in clinical nutrition, meal planning, nutritional assessment, nutrition education and counseling for patients, food order and catering, and participation in nutrition courses and seminars.
  • Private Work: 1992- 1997.

  • Journal Paper

      Al-Kurd, R.F.; Takru, " The Effect of Puffing on the Nutritive Value of Wheat, Chickpea and their Mixtures " , "Emir. J. Agric. Sci. ",Vol.8,No., , UAE, 10/10/1996

      Alkurd, R., Takturi,, " The Effect Inhaling Cigarette Smoke on Body Weight, Vitamin C, and Iron Status in Guinea Pigs (in arabic) " , "Arab Journal for Food and Nutrition ",Vol.3,No.6, , Manama, Bahrain, 01/01/2002

      Alkurd, R.A, Takruri, " Tannin Contents of Selected Plants Used in Jordan " , "Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences",Vol.4,No.3, , Amman, Jordan, 01/01/2008

      Takruri, H.R and Alk, " The Glyceic Index of a New Bread Brand (Biobread) " , "Jordan Medical Journal ",Vol.42,No.2, , Amman, Jordan, 01/01/2008 Abstract:
      The Glycemic Index of a New Bread Brand (Biobread) (Brief Communications) Hamed R. Takruri, Ref’at A. Alkurd Jordan Medical Journal, Vol 42, No 2 (2008) Abstract Objective: Wheat bread is a traditional food in the Arab Middle East countries. In these countries, as well as in other countries of the world, the prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus is high. The consumption of low Glycemic Index (GI) foods may provide a variety of health benefits including control of blood glucose and lipids. The purpose of this study was to measure the serum glucose response of a new bread (Biobread), which is produced from whole wheat and other ingredients, and compare it with the traditional Arabic type bread made from white flour. Methods: The study was performed in the laboratory of Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Amman-Jordan. A group of 8 adult healthy volunteers (4 men, 4 women) participated in this study. They were fed the commercially prepared Biobread and white bread. The GI (mean ± SEM) was calculated by standard methods. Results: The glucose response of the Biobread was lower than that of the traditional white bread giving a GI value of 70.2 ± 8.5. Conclusion: The Biobread can be classified as a relatively low- GI food item. There seems to be an effect of the added ingredients on the blood glucose response, particularly the rye and soybean flour incorporated in Biobread. Keywords glycemic index, white bread, Biobread Download

      Kurd, R., " The Effect of Tannin Consumption on the Body Iron Status of Growing Rats (in arabic). " , "Arab Journal for Food and Nutrition ",Vol.9,No.19, , Manama,Bahrain, 01/01/2008

      Al-kurd, R.A., Takru, " Estimated intakes of iron, zinc and selenium of Jordanians as obtained from data of Jordanian Houshold Expenditures and Income Survey (JHEIS) 2006 " , "Pakistan Journal of Nutrition ",Vol.9,No.6, , Pakistan, 01/01/2010

      Al-Kurd, R.A. and Faris, M.A. , " Nutritional and health quality of a group of popular weight-reducing diets in Jordan. " , "Pakistan Journal of Nutrition ",Vol.10,No.9, --, pakistan, 01/01/2011 Abstract:
      Nutritional and health quality of a group of popular weight-reducing diets in Jordan. Download

      Takruri, H., Alkurd, R. and Faris, M. , " Trends of energy and macronutrient intake of Jordanians (in Arabic). " , "Journal of Saudi Society for Food and Nutrition ",Vol.6,No.2, ---, KSA, 01/01/2011 Abstract:
      This paper evaluates the trends in the intake of energy and macronutrients in Jordan as obtained from food consumption calculations based on the most recent data of JHEIS, 2006/2007. The estimated intakes of these nutrients were analyzed using a nutrition analysis software program (Food Processor SQL, 2008). The energy and nutrient intakes for different governorates and for rural and urban areas were calculated. The results revealed that the consumption varied among the different governorates; the means of annual per capita intakes of cereals were the highest in Madaba and Balqa (191 and 183.5 kg) whereas the lowest was in Tafila (148.9 kg). Since 1992, the daily per capita intake of cereals declined, whereas the intakes of meats, chicken, sugar and fats increased. The share of cereals in energy also declined from 1717 in 1992 to 1297 kcal in 2006/2007. On the other hand, there was an increase in the share of energy from dairy products, eggs, fats, fruits, nuts and drinks. Such changes in the share of these food groups agree with studies of the Food Balance Sheets by DOS (2008) and the FAO Food Balance Sheets, 2007. There was an increment in carbohydrate intake and its contribution to energy in urban areas as compared with rural areas. The results also showed an increase in the number of servings of the cereal group, a decrease in the servings of vegetables and fruits, and a sharp decrease in the servings of milk when compared to recommendations of MyPyramid system. It is concluded from this study that the current Jordanian food intake pattern has changed, and it is recommended that in any food and nutrition policy, programs should be adopted to promote the increase of milk and its products intake to more than double and also increase the intake of vegetables and fruits.

      Alkurd, R. A. , " Estimated intakes of fats, cholesterol, fiber, sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium in Jordan. " , "Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ",Vol.5,No.12, , , 12/10/2011 Abstract:
      This paper evaluates the estimated intakes of total fats and n-3, n-6, saturated and trans fatty acids, in addition to cholesterol, dietary fiber, sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium as calculated from the most recent data of Jordanian Household Expenditures and Income Survey (JHEIS) for the year 2006/2007. The estimated intakes of these food constituents were analyzed for different governorates using a nutrition analysis software program. The results showed that the whole country (Kingdom) mean of daily per capita intake of total fat was within the recommendations of the AMDR, whereas, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were 35% and 47% of the lower range of AMDR, respectively. The Jordanian estimated consumption of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were in agreement with the recommendations of the American Heart Association (AHA), whereas, the consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids was lower than these recommendations. There was a variation in the estimated intake of these constituents among different governorates. The consumption of cholesterol for the whole country and all governorates was within the recommendations of the AHA. The ratio of polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids for the whole country was 1.3/1 which is within the recommended ratio (1-1.5/1). The dietary fiber consumption of the whole country was 24.4 g, whereas, the consumption of the governorates ranged from 20.1 to 28.0 g. Expressed as g/1000 kcal, the dietary fiber consumption for the whole country was 8 g/1000 kcal which is approximately 2/3 of the DRIs (14 g/1000 kcal). The sodium consumption was more than 5 times its AI, whereas the consumptions of calcium, potassium and magnesium were lower than their DRIs. It is possible that high prevalence of CVD among Jordanians is correlated partially with the high intakes of energy and sodium and the low intake of dietary fiber, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, calcium, potassium and magnesium. To aid reducing the risk factors of CVD, the researcher recommends the increase the intake of dietary fibers, particularly from fruits and vegetables, calcium, potassium and magnesium and the decrease in energy and sodium intakes. Increased physical activity and weight reduction of the obese and overweight persons are also recommended. Download

      Fararjeh, M.A., Al Jamal, A., Faris, M.A, Al-Kurd, R.A., Mohammad, K., and Bustanji, Y., " Effect of intermittent fasting on lipid profile and hematological parameters in healthy volunteers in Jordan. " , "Effect of intermittent fasting on lipid profile and hematological parameters in healthy volunteers in Jordan. ",Vol.1,No.1, ---, ---, 01/01/2012 Abstract:
      The Purpose of this study is to show the effects of fasting on lipid profiles and hematological parameters in healthy volunteers. Eighty Healthy subjects (50 male and 30 female) volunteered to participate in all of three stages of the study. Volunteers aged from 18 to 60 were included. Blood samples were collected as follows, each volunteer at each visit gives 5 ml blood placed in EDTA tube and 10 ml in a plain tube, from all healthy volunteers one week before Ramadan, on the third week of Ramadan, and one month after the end of Ramadan. All participants were chosen from the same living community, Rusaifa city, Jordan, so that the socioeconomic levels were highly similar. Anthropometric measurements that are measured for volunteers showed no significant differences between results before and after Ramadan except for the body fat (%) in males (P=0.051). The packed cell volume shows significant reduction in males and females (P=0.052, P=0.04) respectively, while RBCs showed significant reduction in females only (P=0.01). White blood cells and the differential count showed no significant effect of Ramadan fasting except for the monocots absolute count as well as percentage in males which show significant increase(P<0.001). The results of the lipid profile showed an important significant increase in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.006). Download

      Faris, M.A, Kacimi, S., Al-Kurd, R.A., Fararjeh, M.A., Bustanji, Y.K., Mohammad, M.K., and Salem, M.L., " Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects. " , "Nutrition Research Journal. ",Vol.32,No.12, , , 01/01/2012 Abstract:
      Intermittent fasting and caloric restriction have been shown to extend life expectancy and reduce inflammation and cancer promotion in animal models. It was hypothesized that intermittent prolonged fasting practiced during the month of Ramadan (RIF) could positively affect the inflammatory state. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the impact of RIF on selected inflammatory cytokines and immune biomarkers in healthy subjects. Fifty (21 men and 29 women) healthy volunteers who practiced Ramadan fasting were recruited for the investigation of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α), immune cells (total leukocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes), and anthropometric and dietary assessments. The investigations were conducted 1 week before Ramadan fasting, at the end of the third week of Ramadan, and 1 month after the cessation of Ramadan month. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α; systolic and diastolic blood pressures; body weight; and body fat percentage were significantly lower (P < .05) during Ramadan as compared with before Ramadan or after the cessation of Ramadan fasting. Immune cells significantly decreased during Ramadan but still remained within the reference ranges. These results indicate that RIF attenuates inflammatory status of the body by suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression and decreasing body fat and circulating levels of leukocytes.

      Faris, M.A., Hussein, R.N., Al-Kurd, R.A., Fararjeh, M., R., Bustanji, Y., and Mohammad, M., " Impact of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Oxidative Stress Measured by Urinary 15-F2t-Isoprostane. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. " , "Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. ",Vol.2012,No.2012, --, --, 01/01/2012 Abstract:
      Fasting and caloric restriction have been associated with reduced incidence of chronic diseases and cancers. These effects have been attributed to reduced oxidative stress. Since Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) has been associated with reduced caloric intake, it was hypothesized that RIF would alleviate oxidative stress in healthy volunteers. The study was designed to elucidate the impact of RIF on oxidative stress measured by 15-F2t-Isoprostane (15FIP). Fifty healthy subjects (23 men and 27 women) who intended to fast Ramadan were recruited. Urine and serum sampling and anthropometric and dietary assessments were conducted one week before Ramadan (T0), at the end of the third week of Ramadan (T1), and one month after Ramadan (T2). Biochemical measurements included urinary 15FIP, creatinine, and hematological indices. Results revealed that the urinary level of 15FIP measured at T0 was normal, while they showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher level when measured at T1 concomitant with a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the body weight and total body fat percent. In conclusion, results suggest that increased body weight is associated with increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, and the impact of RIF on oxidative stress is mediated by the changes in body weight at the end of the month. Download

      Takruri, H.R and Alkurd, R.A., " Intakes of fats, cholesterol, fiber and micronutrients as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Jordan. " , "--",Vol.,No., --, ---, 01/01/2014 Abstract:
      The cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Jordan and many other countries. The etiology of CVD is multifactorial. Dietary factors play significant roles in the initiation, prevention and treatment of CVD diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the daily intake of nutrients associated with developing CVD among Jordanians, based on the Department of Statistics household budget survey “JHEIS 2010”, and to detect any changes in these intakes in comparison with the previous JHEIS survey. The data of the JHEIS 2010 were analyzed for the purpose of estimating the quantity of nutrient intakes in the different governorates of the country. The results showed that energy intake in the whole country (the Kingdom) was 3325 kcal/day. The daily intakes (as % of energy) of total, saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, trans, omega-3 and omega-6 fats were 26.6, 6.5, 8.5, 8, 0.2, 0.21 and 2.2%, respectively. The daily fiber intake was 7.2 g/1000 kcal. The daily intakes (mg/day) of cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were 303, 6206, 3030, 627 and 305, respectively. There was a variation in the intakes of these nutrients and energy among governorates. It is concluded that the Jordanian estimated daily intakes of total fat, saturated, polyunsaturated and trans fats were within the recommendations expressed as percent of energy intake, in contrary to the intakes of monounsaturated, omega-3 and omega-6 fats and dietary fibers, which were lower than those of the recommendations. In addition, the daily intakes of potassium, calcium and magnesium were low and those of energy and sodium intakes were very high as compared with the recommendations. Download

      Alkurd R.A., Takruri H.R., Mwalla M.M., and Arafat, T.A. , " . Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses of Multi-Grain Types of Bread Marketed in Jordan " , "Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science",Vol.8,No., Enviro Research Publishers, Amman-Jordan, 08/12/2020 Abstract:
      Abstract Introduction: Bread is the staple food in Jordan and there are plenty of bread types advertised there as healthy and multi-grain breads. These breads have diverse health and nutritional effects. This research aimed at studying the glycemic and insulinemic responses of 6 types of multigr Download

      Alia M. Abu Rajab, Hamed R.H. Takruri, Aly A. Mishal, and Refat A. Alkurd. , " Glycemic and insulinemic response of different types of Jordanian honey in healthy and type 2 diabetic volunteers. " , "Pak. J. Nutr",Vol.16,No., Asian Network for Scientific Information, Amman-Jordan, 01/15/2017 Abstract:
      Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the Glycemic Index (GI) and Insulin Index (II) values of some types of Jordanian honey. Materials and Methods: Six types of honey (citrus, locust pod, Spanish thistle, Christ thorn, mixed flora and sugar honeys) were compared with white bread and s Download

      Al-Sayyed, H.F., Al-Kurd, R. Mwalla, M, and Abdel Qader, S. , " Antioxidant Content and Capacity of Jordanian Date Palm Fruit at two Maturity Stages. " , "Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ",Vol.12,No., ttt, Amman-Jordan, 09/13/2018 Abstract:
      Introduction: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is cultivated in Jordan for long known time. One of the most commonly grown date palm fruit varieties in Jordan is Barhi. The date palm fruits get matured due to the enzymatic action upon fruit components triggered by climatic conditions. This maturit Download

      Alkurd R., Takruri H.R., and Amr A.M. , " Trends of Energy and Macronutrients Intakes in Jordan as Obtained by Household Expenditure and Income Surveys. " , "Journal of Agricultural Science",Vol.11,No., the Canadian Center of Science and Education, Amman-Jordan, 12/15/2018 Abstract:
      Abstract Jordan has encountered changes in demographic and food consumption patterns during the last few decades as a result of the nutrition transition and westernized food habits. This paper aims to evaluate the trends in energy and macronutrient intakes in Jordan based on the data of Jordan Ho Download

      Al-Sayyed, H., Al-Kurd, R. Mwalla, M, and Abdel Qader, S. , " Determination of Antioxidant Content and Activity in Eight Jordanian Fresh Green Leafy Vegetables. " , "Agricultural Research & Technology: Open Access Journal ",Vol.19,No., Juniper Publishers Inc., Amman-Jordan, 01/25/2019 Abstract:
      Abstract The consumption of vegetables that contain natural antioxidants is thought to be an efficient way for reducing the risk for oxidative stress diseases. Determination of antioxidant content and capacity allows the screening of vegetables that are probably involved in the prevention and/ or Download

      Al-Sayyed, H.F., Al-Kurd, R. Mwalla, M, and Abdel Qader, S. , " Determination of Antioxidant Content and Capacity of Four Jordanian Fresh Citrus Fruits. " , "Journal of Agricultural Science",Vol.11,No., the Canadian Center of Science and Education, Amman-Jordan, 02/15/2019 Abstract:
      Abstract Citrus fruits are considered one of the most grown crops worldwide including Jordan with high nutritive and non-nutritive value. The consumption of foods that contain natural antioxidants is thought to be an efficient way for reducing the risk for oxidative stress diseases. Determination o Download

      Al-Sayyed, H.F., Al-Kurd, R. Mwalla, M, Arafat, T.A., and Abdel Qader, S., " Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Antioxidant Content and Capacity of Three Aqueous Extracts of Four Types of Capsicum Annuum (Pepper) Grown in Jordan. " , " Jordan Journal of Chemistry",Vol.14,No., the Deanship of Research and Graduate Studies, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan., Amman-Jordan, 06/03/2020 Abstract:
      Abstract: This research aimed at comparing the antioxidant content and capacity of three different colors (green, yellow and red) of Capsicum annuum variety of sweet pepper and hot green pepper grown locally in Jordan. Additionally, this research aimed at finding the correlation (if any) between Download

      Ersheed S.A., Ghazawee H., Alkurd R. , " The Relationship between Premenstrual Syndrome, Dietary, Lifestyle Behaviors and Its Correlation with Body Weight Status among Females: A General Review. " , "J Nutr Food Sci ",Vol.3,No., Henry Publishing Groups, Amman, 10/22/2020 Abstract:
      Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), is a worldwide phrase present in all cultures and has been the subject of consideration for many biomedical researchers. A large number of reproductive age women experience at least some form of menstrual symptoms. The severity and chronic nature of PMS has led to th Download

      Alkurd R.A., Takruri H.R., Mwalla M.M., and Arafat, T.A. , " The Nutritional Value, Energy and Nutrient Contents and Claims of Marketed Multi-grain Breads. " , "Journal of Food and Nutrition Research ",Vol.8,No., Science and Education Publishing, Amman, 11/02/2020 Abstract:
      Cereals, mainly bread from plain wheat flour, are the staple food in Jordan. Leavened Arabic bread is the traditional consumed form. Bread is also produced in other forms by the addition of ingredients not present in the traditional Arabic bread. These forms of bread are associated with some nutri Download

      26. Elsahoryi, N.A., Alkurd, R., Ahmad, L., Olimat, A.N., Hammad, F. and Holley, R. , " "Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among restaurant's staff in Jordan: a cross-sectional study" " , "British Food Journal",Vol.ahead-of-print ,No., Emerald PUBLISHING, UK, 12/10/2020 Abstract:
      Purpose People with food allergies rely to a great extent on restaurant staff to have a safe meal. The purpose of this paper is to acquire novel data to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices of food allergy among the restaurant's staff and factors that could be associated with these domains. D

      AlKurd, R.; Hanash, N.; Khalid, N.; Abdelrahim, D.N.; Khan, M.A.B.; Mahrous, L.; Radwan, H.; Naja, F.; Madkour, M.; Obaideen, K.; et al., " Effect of Camel Milk on Glucose Homeostasis in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. " , "journal",Vol.14,No., Nutrients, Basel, Switzerland, 06/08/2022 Abstract:
      Abstract: The effects of camel milk (CM) intake on glycemic control in patients with diabetes are controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to summarize the effect of CM intake on glucose homeostasis parameters in patients with bo

  • Chapter in a Book

      Alkurd, R. et., al., " “Nutrition” Book of the First Secondary Class (first and second levels). First and second editions " , "",Vol.,No., Minestry of Education, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, 01/01/2006

  • Doctoral Dissertation

      Al-Kurd, R.A., " Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Anemia, the Iron and Ascorbic Acid Status, Body Weight, and Energy Intake in Guinea Pig " , "",Vol.,No., , Amman, Jordan, 08/06/2001 Abstract:
      Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Anemia, the Iron and Ascorbic Acid Status, Body Weight, and Energy Intake in Guinea Pigs This study aimed at investigating the effect of smoke of "Viceroy" cigarettes, on anemia, the nutritional status of ascorbic acid, iron, body weight, and energy intake in guinea pigs. Thirty six guinea pigs were divided into 7 groups, each group contained 5 animals, except group VI which contained 6 animals. Food and water were introduced to animals ad libitum, except the food of group VII that was a pair-fed control for group II. A special machine was designed and implemented for the production of mainstream smoke that was used throughout the experiment for exposing the guinea pigs to cigarette smoke. Group I and III were exposed to smoke of 10 cig/group/day for 5.5 and 3.5 months (respectively); group II and IV were exposed to smoke of 20 cig/group/day for 5.5 and 3.5 months (respectively); group V was exposed to smoke of 40 cig/group/day for 3.5 months; group VI was a control without smoke-exposure; group VII was a pair-fed control for group II without smoke-exposure. The results of the study showed that exposure of guinea pigs to cigarette smoke caused a significant decrease in food consumption (p<0.05), weight gain, and food efficiency for 5.5 months of exposure. It is also indicated that smoke exposure did not affect significantly the hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte morphology, serum iron, and total iron binding capacity. It caused a decrease in the transferrin saturation of the group exposed to 20 cig/group/day in comparison with the other two groups exposed to cigarette smoke of 10 and 20 cig/group/day for 3.5 months. It significantly (p<0.05) caused a decrease in plasma ascorbic acid of the group exposed to cigarette smoke of 10 cig/group/animal for 5.5 months. It also caused a decrease in the leukocyte AA of the two groups exposed to cigarette smoke for 5.5 months at different smoke intensity levels. An electron dense layer was noticed on tips of epithelial cells lining small intestine and stomach with increased number of lysosomes and vacuoles in the groups exposed to cigarette smoke. It is concluded in this study that cigarette smoke exposure of guinea pigs "caused adverse effects on ascorbic acid and iron status, but this adverse effect did not reach the stage of deficient erythropoiesis or iron deficiency anemia.

  • Master Thesis

      AI-Kurd, R.A. , " Effect of Puffing on The Nutritive Value of Wheat, Chickpea and their Mixtures (in Arabic) " , "",Vol.,No., , Amman, Jordan, 01/01/1991 Abstract:
      The Effect of Puffing on the Nutritive Value of the Proteins of Wheat, Chickpea and their Mixtures Summary: The aim of this study was to determine the best conditions of puffing wheat and chickpea and the effect of that puffing on their protein quality. Furthermore, the effect of protein complementation on the nutritive value as a result of mixing raw as well as puffed wheat and chickpea (in a ratio of 70/30,w/w) was evaluated. It has been shown that the best conditions to produce puffed wheat "kalieh" was to treat wheat at 500°C for 90 sec after the addition of 2% (w/w) water; while the best quality of puffed chickpea "qudamah" was obtained by treating chickpea at 550°C for 120 sec after the addition of 12% (w/w) water. Two animal experiments were carried out in which food consumption, protein effeciency ratio (PER), net protein utilization (NPU) and net dietary protein energy% (NDPE%) were determined for the raw and puffed products using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into 8 groups. The 1st group was fed casein-based diet, the 2nd: protein-free diet; the 3rd: raw wheat diet; the 4th: puffed wheat (kalieh) diet; the 5th: raw chickpea diet; the 6th: puffed chickpea (qudamah) diet; the 7th: raw wheat/chickpea mix (in a ratio of 70/30, w/w) and the 8th: kalieh/qudamah mix (in the same ratio). The results indicated that puffing or roasting did not change significantly the food consumption in comparison with raw food. They also showed that puffing chickpea increased significantly the PERadj from 1.99 to 2.36 (P <0.05) and the NPUst from 65 to 74 (P <0.01) [and the NDPE% from 8.6 to 9.5 (P < 0.001)]. Also puffing of wheat increased significantly the NPUst from 46 to 53 (P <0.05) and the NDPE% from 4.1 to 4.6 (P <0.01); however, the PERadj did not change significantly (1.48 to 1.46). The NDPE% of the mixture of kalieh and qudamah (70/30, w/w) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than the same raw mixture (7.5 and 7.2 respectively), while the increase in NPUst (from 73 to 75) and PER (from 2.41 to 2.63) were not significant. Results also showed- according to NPUSt- that the protein value of qudamah is equal to that of wheat/chickpea mix (in the ratio of 70/30, w/w). NDPE% values for the kalieh/qudamah mix 70/30, w/w) was high; this mix is suitable for feeding children (5-10 yr) and adults. Also, both qudamah and kalieh/qudamah mix are recommended for use as food supplements for infants.
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