جسرٌ نحو المعرفة
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الإسم : أ.د. محمد العناني

الرتبة العلمية: أستاذ دكتور

المسمى الوظيفي: عميد

المكتب 6228       الرقم الفرعي 6000

بريد الكتروني: manani@uop.edu.jo

التخصص: اللغويات

جامعة التخرج: University of Leeds, UK

تحميل السيرة الذاتية

المؤهل العلمي

    المؤهل العلمي

    الجامعة

    البلد

    سنة الحصول على المؤهل

    دبلوم
    Welsh College of Advanced Tech., Cardiff, Wa
    المملكه المتحدة
    1963
    البكالوريوس
    B.A. Damascus University
    سوريا
    1960
    الماجستير
    University of Leeds
    سوريا
    1968
    الدكتوراه
    University of Leeds,
    المملكه المتحدة
    1978
    الدكتوراه
    University of Leeds, UK
    المملكه المتحدة
    1971

 

Present           Professor of English, Department of English.

                                    University of  Petra, Amman

2005-2007       Professor of English, Department of Linguistics, University of Jordan, Amman

            2004-2005       Professor of English, Department of English, Faculty of Arts,

                                   Al-Zaytoona University

            1995-2004       Professor of Linguistics, Department of Linguistics, University

                                    of Jordan.

1995                Professor of English, Department of English, Jordan University                                           for Women (now Petra University)

            1993-1994       Professor of English, Department of English-University of Jordan.

            1992-1993       Professor of English, Department of English, Jordan University                                                       for Women, Amman.

            1989-1992       Professor of English, Department of English, University of Jordan.

1979-1985       Associate Professor, Department of English, University of                                       Jordan.

            1977-1989       Lecturer, Department of English, University of Jordan.

            1971-1977       Lecturer-Assistant Professor, University of Tripoli.

            1961-1965       Teacher of English, TTC ,Amman.

 

 

 

            Administrative Experience:

            1979-1980       Chairman, Department of English, University of Jordan.

            1980-1985       Co-coordinator of Linguistic Programs, Department of                                                         English.

            1988-1992       Director, The Language Center, University of Jordan.

            1992-1996       Chairman, Department of English, Jordan University                                                            for Women (now Petra University), Amman.

            1996-2004       Director, Center for Phonetics Research, University of                                                         Jordan.

                                    Chairman, Department of Phonetics & Linguistics, Univ.

of Jordan

  1. 2006 Chairman, Department of English, Al-   ZaytoonUniversity, Amman

Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Jordan

2007–present : Dean , Faculty of Arts & Sciences, University of Petra, Amman



  • Book





      Mohammad Anani, " Introduction to Phonetics " , "",Vol.,No., , , 01/01/2008 :الملخص
      مدخل الى الصوتيات - دار وائل للنشر2008 Download




      Dr.Mohammad Isaac An, " Elements of Acoustic Phonetics " , "Elements of Acoustic Phonetics",Vol.,No., Dar Jareer, Amman, Jordan, 01/01/2009 :الملخص
      مقدمة المترجم الذي اخترت ترجمة لھ " عناصر صوتیات الموجات " Elements of Acoustic Phonetics ھذا الكتاب كتبھ أحد مدرسي الصوتیات المشھورین في الاوساط الجامعیة العلمیة , وھو الاستاذ بیتر لادفوجد , استاذ الصوتیات بجامعة لوس أنجلوس, و تناول فیھ النواحي الاساسیة للاشارة الصوتیة , تلك الاسارة التي یتم نقلھا بوسائل الاتصال الحدیثة, أو یتم تسجیلھا على شریط ممغنط أو قرص لیزر أو یتم تخزیھا بوسائل اخرى. Download




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " Language and Linguistics " , "Language & Linguistics",Vol.,No., Dar Jareer, Amma, Jordan, 10/01/2009 :الملخص
      اللغة و اللغویات كتاب " اللغة و اللغویات" ألفھ الأستاذ جون لوینز من علماء اللغة الثقات، و عالج فیھ مسائل اللغة بطریقة علمیة حدیثة تستند الى البحث و الاستقصاء و اقامة الدلیل، و تعتمد على الوصف و التحلیل. لم یلتزم المؤلف وجھة نظر واحدة من وجھات النظر الكثیرة التي ذھب الیھا العلماء و الباحثون في دراسة الظاھرات اللغویة، و لكنھ أجملھا ووازنھا ، و رجح بعضھا في موضوع و بعضھا الاخر في غیره حسبما تكشف لھ من وجوه الصواب. اللغة واللغويات - دار جرير للنشر2009 Download




      Mohammad Anani, " Arabic For Speakers of Other Language " , "Arabic for Speakers of Other Languages",Vol.,No., Dar Jareer , Amman , Jordan, 01/01/2009 :الملخص
      aArabic for Speakers of Other Languages Beginners' Book, Dar Jareer, 2009 Download


  • Journal Paper





      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " 2007 Arabic Vowel Formant Frequencies In ;Emphatic and Non-emphatic; Contexts " , "Journal of korean Studies in the middle East",Vol.1,No.1, Jordan University Press, Amman, Jordan, 01/01/2007 :الملخص
      Arabic Vowel Format Frequencies In "emphatic" And "non-emphatic" contexts The present article studies the format frequencies of Arabic vowels in "emphatic" and "emphatic" contexts. The data are formant frequencies of ten Jordanian Arabic vowels spoken in three different conditions: (i) vowels spoken in isolation, (ii) vowels spoken in isolated monosyllabic words, (iii) vowels spoken in a carrier phrase. Mean values of vowel formants were from the analysis. Download




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " Arabic and English Imperative Structures " , "IRAL",Vol.XXVI,No.3, Stuttgavt University, stuttgavt, Germany, 01/05/1988 :الملخص
      Arabic and English Imperative Structures Traditional studies of Arabic imperative sentences are unsatisfactory in two major respects; they fail to distinguish between different types of imperative sentences and they study notionally such individual grammatical categories as fi9 1 ul-amr "the imperative form of the verb" and al-muntada" the vocative" without considering each as a part of a system and functioning by reasons of relationships within that system ( CF Abdul-Hamid, 1963and Abbas, 1980). Furthermore the vocative is often given as a primary sentence type (CF. Abdul-Hamid, 1963) and the imperative is relegated to a minor position. Also subordinate are the categories of negation, which have formal exponents. Download




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " Phonetic Description of Arabic Consonants by Early Arab Linguists. " , "Phonetic Society of Japan",Vol.,No.179, Phonetic Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 01/09/1985 :الملخص
      Phonetic Description of Arabic Consonants By Early Arab Linguists This paper is primarily concerned with the early Arab linguists approach to the study of speech sounds. In particular, attention is being drawn to methods of description employed by earl Arab linguists at both the phonetic and phonological levels of analysis. It has been demonstrated the phonetic categories established to the compatibility Download




      Mohammad Anani, " The Complex Structure of the Arabic Noun Phrase vs. the English Noun Phrase " , "",Vol.,No., , , 02/02/1984 :الملخص
      1984 The Complex Structure of the Arabic Noun Phrase vs. the English Noun Phrase Proceedings of the AILA World Congress 84, Volume 2: sections 19-25, p.863 Download




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " 1983 Some Differences Between Arabic and English Comparative Structures " , "Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics",Vol.17,No., , Poznan, Poland, 03/10/1983 :الملخص
      1983 Some Differences Between Arabic and English Comparative Structures Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics 17: 76-85 Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Seventeen. J Fisiak - Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, 1983 - eric.ed.gov ... Should Stack that Don't" (Elzbieta Tabakowska); "Towards a Pedagogical Grammar of Determiners: A Contrastive Approach" (Paul Robberecht); "Some Differences Between Arabic and English Comparative Structures" (Mohammad Anani); "Some Remarks ... Download




      :الملخص
      1980 Some Phonological and Lexico-grammatical Aspects of Inter-Language First Conference on the Problems of Teaching English language and Literature at Arab Universities, University of Jordan




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " 1980 Some Phonetic Differences between Arabic and English Vowels " , "journal of phonetics",Vol.33,No.6, AcadamicVerlag, Berlin, 04/03/1980 :الملخص
      Some Phonetic Differences between Arabic and English Vowels The traditional approach in the description and classification of Arabic vowels has been carried out, for Classical Arabic and the various dialects, in terms of chronemic (categories of length) rather than qualitative criteria. Primary distinction is often drawn between three short vowels, viz. [I, u, a] and three long counterparts, viz. [i:, u:, a:]. Priority is usually given to the description and classification of consonants, and a complete inventory of consonantal units is usually displayed at the initial stage of the phonological description. Download




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " 1973 Duration in Arabic Exclamatory sentences: its Effect on Learning English " , "Leeds Phonetic, Repots 3: 7-15, reports 3: 6-15, reprinted in Dirasaat ",Vol.5,No.2, University of Jordan, Amman,Jordan, 07/19/1973 :الملخص
      1973 Duration in Arabic Exclamatory sentences: its Effect on Learning English Leeds Phonetic, Repots 3: 7-15, reports 3: 6-15, reprinted in Dirasaat 5, 1978, p. 39-48 Abstract Arabic exclamatory sentences are formally marked by the presence of the particle of intensification 'ma' followed directly by a (comparative) adjectival almost invariably of the structure (?aCCaC) + a pronominal suffix (e.g. ma + ?atwal + ak "how tall you are!"). They are distinguishable in part from other sentence types by lengthening vocalic as well as consonantal segments of the constituent syllables. The vocalic as well as the consonantal segments of exclamatory sentences are given considerably greater than would normally have been the case, say, in contexts of situation where a statement of fact is being reported. Download




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " Differences in Distribution of Arabic l,r and English l,r " , "Papers and Studies in Contrastive linguistics",Vol.,No.20, Adam university, Ponzan, 04/04/1985 :الملخص
      Differences in Distribution between Arabic \l\, \r\ Phonetic differences between lateral and trill articulation in "emphatic" and "non-emphatic" context raises special problems for Arabic speakers of English, since differentiation depends on syntagmatic implications different from those relevant to English. 1. Download




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " The Effect of Dentures on Some Acoustic Features of Coronal Fricatives. " , "ABHATH AL_YARMOUK",Vol.18,No.1, Deanship of Resaerch ,Yarmouk Univ. , IRBID& JORDAN, 01/05/2000 :الملخص
      The Effect of Dentures on Some Acoustic Features of Coronal Fricatives Changes in the speech during dental treatment of patients have not been investigated so far. It is generally acknowledged that failure to control and coordinate articulators( lips, tongue body, velum) will lead to distortion or inappropriate execution of speech sounds. For example, the lips open (close) or protrude (retract) relative to the jaw and maxilla. The protrusion and elevation of the upper lip relative to the upper incisors are assumed to be equal to those of the lower lip relative to the lower incisors. ( Cf.http//www.explration ium.edu). Download




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " 1973 Duration in Arabic Exclamatory sentences: its Effect on Learning English " , "Leeds Phonetic, Repots 3: 7-15, reports 3: 6-15, reprinted in Dirasaat ",Vol.5,No.2, University of Jordan, Amman,Jordan, 07/19/1973 :الملخص
      1973 Duration in Arabic Exclamatory sentences: its Effect on Learning English Leeds Phonetic, Repots 3: 7-15, reports 3: 6-15, reprinted in Dirasaat 5, 1978, p. 39-48 Abstract Arabic exclamatory sentences are formally marked by the presence of the particle of intensification 'ma' followed directly by a (comparative) adjectival almost invariably of the structure (?aCCaC) + a pronominal suffix (e.g. ma + ?atwal + ak "how tall you are!"). They are distinguishable in part from other sentence types by lengthening vocalic as well as consonantal segments of the constituent syllables. The vocalic as well as the consonantal segments of exclamatory sentences are given considerably greater than would normally have been the case, say, in contexts of situation where a statement of fact is being reported. Download




      Dr.Mohammad Isaac An, " Prominence and Stress-placement in Arabic and English Words " , "Bulletin of the Faculty of Education",Vol.6,No.6, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya, 03/07/1974 :الملخص
      Prominence and Stress placement in Arabic and English Words Prominence: One of the most important features by which the syllable is recognized is stress. In traditional structuralistic description of the phonology of a language, stress is regarded as a phoneme and stress- placement is stated in terms of "rules" or exception to rules. (1) Trager and Bloch(2), for example, set up with respect to their own pronunciation four stress phoneme: Loud, Reduced Loud, Medical and weak. Download




      Mohammad Anani, " test " , "Journal",Vol.Vol 5,No.N0 3, Macrothink Institute, Las Vegas, USA, 02/28/2013 :الملخص
      Backchannel signals in Arabic conversational exchanges are unaccounted for either in form or in function. The primary objective of this research is therefore to describe the structure and function of those naturally occurring uttered phrases used in conversational exchanges for expressing approval or active engagement in the interaction. To achieve this purpose a corpus consisting of spontaneous conversational exchanges were recorded. The recordings were meant to represent typical family settings in which interaction usually takes place between close relatives or friends: males or females. The conversations were classified into types which represent conversational exchanges between women and men, and children. Reference is made to difficulties experienced by Arab learners of English when talking to Englishspeaking interlocutors, as a result of the differences in backchannel signals. Keywords: Backchannel signals, Arabic, Frequency function Download




      Mohammad Anani, " The Effect of the Arabic Syllabic Prosodic Features on the Production of English CV Sequences " , "Journal",Vol.1,No.1, Macrothink Institute, Las Vegas , USA, 02/18/2013 :الملخص
      The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of the Arabic minimal prosodic unit (the syllable) on the production of English L2 CV sequences. To study the influence of phonetic context upon a given segment and the overall effect the Arabic syntagmatic features on the Arab learner's ability to reorganize in terms of English patterns, samples of conversational exchanges of some native speakers of adult/child Jordanian Arabic were recorded over a two month period. The syllable patterns that regulate the phonological organization of the conversational exchanges were described. To study the effect of the preceding and following consonants on the adjacent vowel sounds, two sets of consonantal contexts were examined: 'emphatic' vs. 'non-emphatic'. The objectives of this study are the following: (i) to identify prosodic features which span the internal structure of the Arabic word templates, e.g. the vocalic melody of frontness vs. backness (ii) to explore the Arabic language-specific phonological constraints and to determine their effect on the production of English sound patterns (iii) to study the Arabic templates which are similar in shape to English equivalents, because contrastive linguistics studies, to date, have so far focused on phonological negative interlingual transfer to the effective exclusion of positive interlingual transfer. (vi) to demonstrate how English utterances are restructured so that the constituent syllables follow typical Arabic syllabication. Keywords: effect, prosodic features, L2 sequences, conversational exchange Download




      Mohammad Anani, " Inappropriate Response in Advanced EFL " , "International Journal of English Language Education",Vol.Vol. 1, No. 3,No.No 3, Macrothink Institute, Las Vegas, USA, 07/05/2013 :الملخص
      Advanced Arab learners of English experience difficulty in responding appropriately within a given situation. In a lively conversation, e.g. a business agreement over a business desk, a formal debate, polite requests, interviews, etc. the devices and strategies used, by and large, draw upon Arabic linguistic and cultural sources. As a result, the overall performance is adversely affected and mutual intelligibility is impeded. This study therefore focuses on utterances produced or reproduced by the other party (the listener) in a conversational exchange. The objectives of this study is to highlight the type of response an advanced Arab learner selects in some typical English conversational interchanges so that similarities and /or differences between L1 and L2 are singled out. To achieve this end, two groups of advanced Arab learners of English have been selected. The first represents 'fluent' speakers of English and the second, the non-fluent' represents students who study English for instrumental purposes at Petra University. Keywords: inappropriate response conversational exchange L1/L2 differences Download




      Mohammad Anani, " Thematization in Advanced EFL English " , "International Journal of English Language Education",Vol.vol 1,No.N0 3, Macrothink Institute, Las Vegas, USA, 05/23/2013 :الملخص
      an Arab learner to focus attention on each word or phrase. A word that is ‘singled out for attention’ as being important is often missed. The objectives of this study are the following: (i) to measure students’ ability to recognize English thematizing patterns (ii) to highlight the importance of grammatical structures that are underplayed in grammar textbooks (iii) determine the effect of L1 thematization processes on corresponding L2 processes (iv) pinpoint sources of difficulty attributed to different focusing processes in conversational exchange A test comprising 30 sentences in which certain elements were thematized and recorded by an English RP speaker were presented to 120 advanced L2 students. They were asked to circle the words that the speaker chose to highlight or focus attention on. Each sentence was repeated twice to ensure students’ appropriate reception. Results show that variation of word order and its concomitant effect on how the information is presented is not very well-known to the advanced Arab learner of English. Less well known is the relevance of tonic variation to the development of conversational exchange. Keywords: thematic devices, focusing process, Arab learners, difficulty Download




      Mohammad Anani, " Thematization in Advanced EFL English " , "International Journal of English Language Education",Vol.1,No.3, Macrothink Institute, Las Vegas , USA, 06/01/2013 :الملخص
      This study hypothesizes that thematization devices are sources of difficulty to the Arab learner. Fronting-devices, i.e. the ways of bringing different elements to the front position, or the placement of the tonic syllable, i.e. the syllable singled out for attention because of its importance as bearing new information escape the attention of advanced Arab learners. There is a tendency for an Arab learner to focus attention on each word or phrase. A word that is ‘singled out for attention’ as being important is often missed. The objectives of this study are the following: (i) to measure students’ ability to recognize English thematizing patterns (ii) to highlight the importance of grammatical structures that are underplayed in grammar textbooks (iii) determine the effect of L1 thematization processes on corresponding L2 processes (iv) pinpoint sources of difficulty attributed to different focusing processes in conversational exchange A test comprising 30 sentences in which certain elements were thematized and recorded by an English RP speaker were presented to 120 advanced L2 students. They were asked to circle the words that the speaker chose to highlight or focus attention on. Each sentence was repeated twice to ensure students’ appropriate reception. Results show that variation of word order and its concomitant effect on how the information is presented is not very well-known to the advanced Arab learner of English. Less well known is the relevance of tonic variation to the development of conversational exchange. Keywords: thematic devices, focusing process, Arab learners, difficulty International




      Mohammad Anani, " Acceptability of Arabic Reduplicates " , "International Journal of Linguistics",Vol.vol 4,No.no 4, Macrothink Institute, Las Vegas, USA, 12/01/2012 :الملخص
      180 www.macrothink.org/ijl Acceptability of Arabic Reduplicates The relative importance attached to reduplication in spoken or written discourse, or acceptability or non-acceptability of a collocation with reference to formal/ informal use of language has not yet been accounted for. To find out how much reduplication is absorbed and acquired almost unconsciously, and to find out what informal pairs are considered acceptable or unacceptable in the formal use of language, a list of 123 reduplicative words was compiled and presented to fourteen undergraduate students studying a course of Semantics at Petra University. Responses were checked with reference to a three-point scale: acceptable, unacceptable and dubious by two professors of Arabic. The purpose was to pinpoint what collocations could be summoned from the mental lexicon. The objectives of this study are the following: (i) to consider the type of input an adult native speaker of Arabic has been subjected to as far as reduplication is concerned (ii) to determine the ranges of collocates that reduplicative words exhibit in normal everyday speech )iii) to explore acceptability or non-acceptability of reduplicative collocations and (iv) to shed light on differences between the mental lexicon of reduplicates and matching dictionary entries . Judging by the acceptability/unacceptability test conducted, one may conclude that each class of reduplicative verbs has a limited range of collocates and that some collocations are perfectly normal and acceptable, while others were felt to be unacceptable and unusual. Keywords: Arabic reduplicates, Collocational range, Acceptability, Retrieve




      Mohammad Anani, " Arabic Back Channel Signals " , "International Journal of Linguistics",Vol.Vol 5,No.N0 1, Macrothink Institute, Las Vegas, USA, 02/28/2013 :الملخص
      Backchannel signals in Arabic conversational exchanges are unaccounted for either in form or in function. The primary objective of this research is therefore to describe the structure and function of those naturally occurring uttered phrases used in conversational exchanges for expressing approval or active engagement in the interaction. To achieve this purpose a corpus consisting of spontaneous conversational exchanges were recorded. The recordings were meant to represent typical family settings in which interaction usually takes place between close relatives or friends: males or females. The conversations were classified into types which represent conversational exchanges between women and men, and children. Reference is made to difficulties experienced by Arab learners of English when talking to Englishspeaking interlocutors, as a result of the differences in backchannel signals. Keywords: Backchannel signals, Arabic, Frequency function Download




      Mohammad Anani, " INCORRECT STRESS PLACEMENT IN THE CASE OF ARAB LEARNERS OF ENGLISH " , " IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics ",Vol.Volume 27, Issue 1,No.1, De Gruyter, Stuttgart. Germany, 01/27/1989 :الملخص
      30,00 € / $42.00* 30,00 € / $42.00 Get Access to Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)INCORRECT STRESS PLACEMENT IN THE CASE OF ARAB LEARNERS OF ENGLISH Mohammad Anani




      Mohammad Anani, " INCORRECT STRESS PLACEMENT IN THE CASE OF ARAB LEARNERS OF ENGLISH " , " IRAL - International Review of Applied Linguistics ",Vol.Volume 27, Issue 1,No.1, De Gruyter, Stuttgart. Germany, 01/27/1989 :الملخص
      30,00 € / $42.00* 30,00 € / $42.00 Get Access to Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)INCORRECT STRESS PLACEMENT IN THE CASE OF ARAB LEARNERS OF ENGLISH Mohammad Anani Download


  • Conference paper





      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " The Prosodic Pattern of Words in Adult-Child Jordanian Arabic and second language Learnability " , "http://cunyphonologyforum.net/footconf.php?",Vol.,No., The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, USA, 01/20/2009 :الملخص
      ABSTRACT For most Arabic varieties, the articulatory and acoustic characteristics of Arabic vowels have so far received little attention. For example, the precise number of vocalic units operating in the phonological systems in most varieties of spoken Arabic is still unknown. Important acoustic knowledge about the formant pattern of vocalic units, especially acoustic data relevant for the first two formants is not available. The purpose of this study has therefore been targeted to collection of acoustic data that would provide reliable evidence for scholars and practitioners when describing and comparing formant frequencies of vocalic units. The material of investigation consisted of 64 contrastive CV (V) C words which represent instances containing each of the ten Arabic monophthongs. Paired words were read out onto a bidirectional microphone connected to Micron computer. The software computer programme used was "Dr Speech, Tiger Electronics, Inc.". Formant frequencies (Fo, F1, F2, F3) were measued by LPC analysis. Download




      Mohammad Isaac Anani, " Arabic Vowel Formant Frequency " , "Proceedings of the 14th Congress of Phonetic Sciences,http:trill.linguistics.berkeley.edu",Vol.,No., Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley, San Feancisco, USA, 04/10/1999 :الملخص
      University of Jordan ABSTRACT For most Arabic varieties, the articulatory and acoustic characteristics of Arabic vowels have so far received little attention. For example, the precise number of vocalic units operating in the phonological systems in most varieties of spoken Arabic is still unknown. Important acoustic knowledge about the formant pattern of vocalic units, especially acoustic data relevant for the first two formants is not available. The purpose of this study has therefore been targeted to collection of acoustic data that would provide reliable evidence for scholars and practitioners when describing and comparing formant frequencies of vocalic units. The material of investigation consisted of 64 contrastive CV (V) C words which represent instances containing each of the ten Arabic monophthongs. Paired words were read out onto a bidirectional microphone connected to Micron computer. The software computer programme used was "Dr Speech, Tiger Electronics, Inc.". Formant frequencies (Fo, F1, F2, F3) were measued by LPC analysis. Download




      Mohammad Anani, " Durational Variation of Vowels as Produced by Arab Students " , "European Conference on Speech Technology",Vol.,No., ISCA, Edinburgh, Scotland, 09/01/1987 :الملخص
      The primary objective of this study was to investigate the degree of influence of Arabic vowel duration in 'emphatic' and 'non-emphatic' contexts on the production of English sequences. The specific questions asked were the following: (i) What is the average Arabic vowel duration in 'emphatic' and 'non-emphatic contexts ? (ii) Is vowel durational variation a function of the complex features of 'emphasis'? Judging by the spectrographic evidence obtained, it has been established that duration of Arabic vowels as well as of syllables vary according to the complex features of 'emphasis', whose domain is more than one segment in length. Such features are carried over to English. Download
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