Al-Kurd, R.F.; Takru, " The Effect of Puffing on the Nutritive Value of Wheat, Chickpea and their Mixtures " , "Emir. J. Agric. Sci. ",Vol.8,No., , UAE, 10/10/1996
Alkurd, R., Takturi,, " The Effect Inhaling Cigarette Smoke on Body Weight, Vitamin C, and Iron Status in Guinea Pigs (in arabic) " , "Arab Journal for Food and Nutrition ",Vol.3,No.6, , Manama, Bahrain, 01/01/2002
Alkurd, R.A, Takruri, " Tannin Contents of Selected Plants Used in Jordan " , "Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences",Vol.4,No.3, , Amman, Jordan, 01/01/2008
Takruri, H.R and Alk, " The Glyceic Index of a New Bread Brand (Biobread) " , "Jordan Medical Journal ",Vol.42,No.2, , Amman, Jordan, 01/01/2008
The Glycemic Index of a New Bread Brand (Biobread) (Brief Communications)
Hamed R. Takruri, Ref’at A. Alkurd
Jordan Medical Journal, Vol 42, No 2 (2008)
Objective: Wheat bread is a traditional food in the Arab Middle East countries. In these countries, as well as in other countries of the world, the prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus is high. The consumption of low Glycemic Index (GI) foods may provide a variety of health benefits including control of blood glucose and lipids. The purpose of this study was to measure the serum glucose response of a new bread (Biobread), which is produced from whole wheat and other ingredients, and compare it with the traditional Arabic type bread made from white flour.
Methods: The study was performed in the laboratory of Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Jordan, Amman-Jordan. A group of 8 adult healthy volunteers (4 men, 4 women) participated in this study. They were fed the commercially prepared Biobread and white bread. The GI (mean ± SEM) was calculated by standard methods.
Results: The glucose response of the Biobread was lower than that of the traditional white bread giving a GI value of 70.2 ± 8.5.
Conclusion: The Biobread can be classified as a relatively low- GI food item. There seems to be an effect of the added ingredients on the blood glucose response, particularly the rye and soybean flour incorporated in Biobread.
glycemic index, white bread, Biobread
Kurd, R., " The Effect of Tannin Consumption on the Body Iron Status of Growing Rats (in arabic). " , "Arab Journal for Food and Nutrition ",Vol.9,No.19, , Manama,Bahrain, 01/01/2008
Al-kurd, R.A., Takru, " Estimated intakes of iron, zinc and selenium of Jordanians as obtained from data of Jordanian Houshold Expenditures and Income Survey (JHEIS) 2006 " , "Pakistan Journal of Nutrition ",Vol.9,No.6, , Pakistan, 01/01/2010
Al-Kurd, R.A. and Faris, M.A. , " Nutritional and health quality of a group of popular weight-reducing diets in Jordan. " , "Pakistan Journal of Nutrition ",Vol.10,No.9, --, pakistan, 01/01/2011
Nutritional and health quality of a group of popular weight-reducing diets in Jordan.
Takruri, H., Alkurd, R. and Faris, M. , " Trends of energy and macronutrient intake of Jordanians (in Arabic). " , "Journal of Saudi Society for Food and Nutrition ",Vol.6,No.2, ---, KSA, 01/01/2011
This paper evaluates the trends in the intake of energy and macronutrients in Jordan as obtained from food consumption calculations based on the most recent data of JHEIS, 2006/2007. The estimated intakes of these nutrients were analyzed using a nutrition analysis software program (Food Processor SQL, 2008). The energy and nutrient intakes for different governorates and for rural and urban areas were calculated. The results revealed that the consumption varied among the different governorates; the means of annual per capita intakes of cereals were the highest in Madaba and Balqa (191 and 183.5 kg) whereas the lowest was in Tafila (148.9 kg). Since 1992, the daily per capita intake of cereals declined, whereas the intakes of meats, chicken, sugar and fats increased. The share of cereals in energy also declined from 1717 in 1992 to 1297 kcal in 2006/2007. On the other hand, there was an increase in the share of energy from dairy products, eggs, fats, fruits, nuts and drinks. Such changes in the share of these food groups agree with studies of the Food Balance Sheets by DOS (2008) and the FAO Food Balance Sheets, 2007. There was an increment in carbohydrate intake and its contribution to energy in urban areas as compared with rural areas. The results also showed an increase in the number of servings of the cereal group, a decrease in the servings of vegetables and fruits, and a sharp decrease in the servings of milk when compared to recommendations of MyPyramid system. It is concluded from this study that the current Jordanian food intake pattern has changed, and it is recommended that in any food and nutrition policy, programs should be adopted to promote the increase of milk and its products intake to more than double and also increase the intake of vegetables and fruits.
Alkurd, R. A. , " Estimated intakes of fats, cholesterol, fiber, sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium in Jordan. " , "Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ",Vol.5,No.12, , , 12/10/2011
This paper evaluates the estimated intakes of total fats and n-3, n-6, saturated and trans fatty
acids, in addition to cholesterol, dietary fiber, sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium as
calculated from the most recent data of Jordanian Household Expenditures and Income Survey
(JHEIS) for the year 2006/2007. The estimated intakes of these food constituents were analyzed for
different governorates using a nutrition analysis software program. The results showed that the whole
country (Kingdom) mean of daily per capita intake of total fat was within the recommendations of the
AMDR, whereas, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were 35% and 47% of the lower range of AMDR,
respectively. The Jordanian estimated consumption of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were
in agreement with the recommendations of the American Heart Association (AHA), whereas, the
consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids was lower than these recommendations. There was a
variation in the estimated intake of these constituents among different governorates. The consumption
of cholesterol for the whole country and all governorates was within the recommendations of the AHA.
The ratio of polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids for the whole country was 1.3/1 which is within the
recommended ratio (1-1.5/1). The dietary fiber consumption of the whole country was 24.4 g, whereas,
the consumption of the governorates ranged from 20.1 to 28.0 g. Expressed as g/1000 kcal, the dietary
fiber consumption for the whole country was 8 g/1000 kcal which is approximately 2/3 of the DRIs (14
g/1000 kcal). The sodium consumption was more than 5 times its AI, whereas the consumptions of
calcium, potassium and magnesium were lower than their DRIs. It is possible that high prevalence of
CVD among Jordanians is correlated partially with the high intakes of energy and sodium and the low
intake of dietary fiber, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, calcium, potassium and magnesium. To aid reducing the
risk factors of CVD, the researcher recommends the increase the intake of dietary fibers, particularly
from fruits and vegetables, calcium, potassium and magnesium and the decrease in energy and sodium
intakes. Increased physical activity and weight reduction of the obese and overweight persons are also
Fararjeh, M.A., Al Jamal, A., Faris, M.A, Al-Kurd, R.A., Mohammad, K., and Bustanji, Y., " Effect of intermittent fasting on lipid profile and hematological parameters in healthy volunteers in Jordan. " , "Effect of intermittent fasting on lipid profile and hematological parameters in healthy volunteers in Jordan. ",Vol.1,No.1, ---, ---, 01/01/2012
The Purpose of this study is to show the effects of fasting on lipid profiles and hematological
parameters in healthy volunteers. Eighty Healthy subjects (50 male and 30 female) volunteered to
participate in all of three stages of the study. Volunteers aged from 18 to 60 were included. Blood
samples were collected as follows, each volunteer at each visit gives 5 ml blood placed in EDTA tube
and 10 ml in a plain tube, from all healthy volunteers one week before Ramadan, on the third week of
Ramadan, and one month after the end of Ramadan. All participants were chosen from the same living
community, Rusaifa city, Jordan, so that the socioeconomic levels were highly similar. Anthropometric
measurements that are measured for volunteers showed no significant differences between results
before and after Ramadan except for the body fat (%) in males (P=0.051). The packed cell volume shows
significant reduction in males and females (P=0.052, P=0.04) respectively, while RBCs showed
significant reduction in females only (P=0.01). White blood cells and the differential count showed no
significant effect of Ramadan fasting except for the monocots absolute count as well as percentage in
males which show significant increase(P<0.001). The results of the lipid profile showed an important
significant increase in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.006).
Faris, M.A, Kacimi, S., Al-Kurd, R.A., Fararjeh, M.A., Bustanji, Y.K., Mohammad, M.K., and Salem, M.L., " Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects. " , "Nutrition Research Journal. ",Vol.32,No.12, , , 01/01/2012
Intermittent fasting and caloric restriction have been shown to extend life expectancy and reduce inflammation and cancer promotion in animal models. It was hypothesized that intermittent prolonged fasting practiced during the month of Ramadan (RIF) could positively affect the inflammatory state. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the impact of RIF on selected inflammatory cytokines and immune biomarkers in healthy subjects. Fifty (21 men and 29 women) healthy volunteers who practiced Ramadan fasting were recruited for the investigation of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α), immune cells (total leukocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes), and anthropometric and dietary assessments. The investigations were conducted 1 week before Ramadan fasting, at the end of the third week of Ramadan, and 1 month after the cessation of Ramadan month. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α; systolic and diastolic blood pressures; body weight; and body fat percentage were significantly lower (P < .05) during Ramadan as compared with before Ramadan or after the cessation of Ramadan fasting. Immune cells significantly decreased during Ramadan but still remained within the reference ranges. These results indicate that RIF attenuates inflammatory status of the body by suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression and decreasing body fat and circulating levels of leukocytes.
Faris, M.A., Hussein, R.N., Al-Kurd, R.A., Fararjeh, M., R., Bustanji, Y., and Mohammad, M., " Impact of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Oxidative Stress Measured by Urinary 15-F2t-Isoprostane. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. " , "Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. ",Vol.2012,No.2012, --, --, 01/01/2012
Fasting and caloric restriction have been associated with reduced incidence of chronic diseases and cancers. These effects have
been attributed to reduced oxidative stress. Since Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) has been associated with reduced caloric
intake, it was hypothesized that RIF would alleviate oxidative stress in healthy volunteers. The study was designed to elucidate the
impact of RIF on oxidative stress measured by 15-F2t-Isoprostane (15FIP). Fifty healthy subjects (23 men and 27 women) who
intended to fast Ramadan were recruited. Urine and serum sampling and anthropometric and dietary assessments were conducted
one week before Ramadan (T0), at the end of the third week of Ramadan (T1), and one month after Ramadan (T2). Biochemical
measurements included urinary 15FIP, creatinine, and hematological indices. Results revealed that the urinary level of 15FIP
measured at T0 was normal, while they showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher level when measured at T1 concomitant with a
significant (P < 0.05) increase in the body weight and total body fat percent. In conclusion, results suggest that increased body
weight is associated with increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, and the impact of RIF on oxidative stress is mediated by
the changes in body weight at the end of the month.
The cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Jordan and many other countries. The etiology of CVD is multifactorial. Dietary factors play significant roles in the initiation, prevention and treatment of CVD diseases. The aim of this study is to estimate the daily intake of nutrients associated with developing CVD among Jordanians, based on the Department of Statistics household budget survey “JHEIS 2010”, and to detect any changes in these intakes in comparison with the previous JHEIS survey. The data of the JHEIS 2010 were analyzed for the purpose of estimating the quantity of nutrient intakes in the different governorates of the country. The results showed that energy intake in the whole country (the Kingdom) was 3325 kcal/day. The daily intakes (as % of energy) of total, saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, trans, omega-3 and omega-6 fats were 26.6, 6.5, 8.5, 8, 0.2, 0.21 and 2.2%, respectively. The daily fiber intake was 7.2 g/1000 kcal. The daily intakes (mg/day) of cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were 303, 6206, 3030, 627 and 305, respectively. There was a variation in the intakes of these nutrients and energy among governorates. It is concluded that the Jordanian estimated daily intakes of total fat, saturated, polyunsaturated and trans fats were within the recommendations expressed as percent of energy intake, in contrary to the intakes of monounsaturated, omega-3 and omega-6 fats and dietary fibers, which were lower than those of the recommendations. In addition, the daily intakes of potassium, calcium and magnesium were low and those of energy and sodium intakes were very high as compared with the recommendations.
Alkurd, R. et., al., " “Nutrition” Book of the First Secondary Class (first and second levels). First and second editions " , "",Vol.,No., Minestry of Education, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, 01/01/2006
Al-Kurd, R.A., " Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Anemia, the Iron and Ascorbic Acid Status, Body Weight, and Energy Intake in Guinea Pig " , "",Vol.,No., , Amman, Jordan, 08/06/2001
Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Anemia, the Iron and Ascorbic Acid Status, Body Weight, and Energy Intake in Guinea Pigs
This study aimed at investigating the effect of smoke of "Viceroy" cigarettes, on anemia, the nutritional status of ascorbic acid, iron, body weight, and energy intake in guinea pigs. Thirty six guinea pigs were divided into 7 groups, each group contained 5 animals, except group VI which contained 6 animals. Food and water were introduced to animals ad libitum, except the food of group VII that was a pair-fed control for group II.
A special machine was designed and implemented for the production of mainstream smoke that was used throughout the experiment for exposing the guinea pigs to cigarette smoke. Group I and III were exposed to smoke of 10 cig/group/day for 5.5 and 3.5 months (respectively); group II and IV were exposed to smoke of 20 cig/group/day for 5.5 and 3.5 months (respectively); group V was exposed to smoke of 40 cig/group/day for 3.5 months; group VI was a control without smoke-exposure; group VII was a pair-fed control for group II without smoke-exposure.
The results of the study showed that exposure of guinea pigs to cigarette smoke caused a significant decrease in food consumption (p<0.05), weight gain, and food efficiency for 5.5 months of exposure. It is also indicated that smoke exposure did not affect significantly the hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte morphology, serum iron, and total iron binding capacity. It caused a decrease in the transferrin saturation of the group exposed to 20 cig/group/day in comparison with the other two groups exposed to cigarette smoke of 10 and 20 cig/group/day for 3.5 months. It significantly (p<0.05) caused a decrease in plasma ascorbic acid of the group exposed to cigarette smoke of 10 cig/group/animal for 5.5 months. It also caused a decrease in the leukocyte AA of the two groups exposed to cigarette smoke for 5.5 months at different smoke intensity levels. An electron dense layer was noticed on tips of epithelial cells lining small intestine and stomach with increased number of lysosomes and vacuoles in the groups exposed to cigarette smoke.
It is concluded in this study that cigarette smoke exposure of guinea pigs "caused adverse effects on ascorbic acid and iron status, but this adverse effect did not reach the stage of deficient erythropoiesis or iron deficiency anemia.
AI-Kurd, R.A. , " Effect of Puffing on The Nutritive Value of Wheat, Chickpea and their Mixtures (in Arabic) " , "",Vol.,No., , Amman, Jordan, 01/01/1991
The Effect of Puffing on the Nutritive Value of the Proteins of Wheat, Chickpea and their Mixtures
The aim of this study was to determine the best conditions of puffing wheat and chickpea and the effect of that puffing on their protein quality. Furthermore, the effect of protein complementation on the nutritive value as a result of mixing raw as well as puffed wheat and chickpea (in a ratio of 70/30,w/w) was evaluated.
It has been shown that the best conditions to produce puffed wheat "kalieh" was to treat wheat at 500°C for 90 sec after the addition of 2% (w/w) water; while the best quality of puffed chickpea "qudamah" was obtained by treating chickpea at 550°C for 120 sec after the addition of 12% (w/w) water.
Two animal experiments were carried out in which food consumption, protein effeciency ratio (PER), net protein utilization (NPU) and net dietary protein energy% (NDPE%) were determined for the raw and puffed products using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into 8 groups. The 1st group was fed casein-based diet, the 2nd: protein-free diet; the 3rd: raw wheat diet; the 4th: puffed wheat (kalieh) diet; the 5th: raw chickpea diet; the 6th: puffed chickpea (qudamah) diet; the 7th: raw wheat/chickpea mix (in a ratio of 70/30, w/w) and the 8th: kalieh/qudamah mix (in the same ratio).
The results indicated that puffing or roasting did not change significantly the food consumption in comparison with raw food. They also showed that puffing chickpea increased significantly the PERadj from 1.99 to 2.36 (P <0.05) and the NPUst from 65 to 74 (P <0.01) [and the NDPE% from 8.6 to 9.5 (P < 0.001)]. Also puffing of wheat increased significantly the NPUst from 46 to 53 (P <0.05) and the NDPE% from 4.1 to 4.6 (P <0.01); however, the PERadj did not change significantly (1.48 to 1.46). The NDPE% of the mixture of kalieh and qudamah (70/30, w/w) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than the same raw mixture (7.5 and 7.2 respectively), while the increase in NPUst (from 73 to 75) and PER (from 2.41 to 2.63) were not significant.
Results also showed- according to NPUSt- that the protein value of qudamah is equal to that of wheat/chickpea mix (in the ratio of 70/30, w/w).
NDPE% values for the kalieh/qudamah mix 70/30, w/w) was high; this mix is suitable for feeding children (5-10 yr) and adults. Also, both qudamah and kalieh/qudamah mix are recommended for use as food supplements for infants.